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***
THE PERSECUTION
OF
ROMAN CATHOLICS
IN
THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR
***
In Memory of
THE JESUIT MARTYRS OF THE CIVIL WAR
***
BIBLIOGRAPHY
***

Aguirre Prado, Luis, The Church and the Spanish Civil War (Servicio Informativo Espanol, 1965)

Aguirre y Lecube, Jose Antonio de, Escape via Berlin (Macmillan, 1944)

Arellza, Jose Maria de, Embajadores Sobre Espana (Instituto de Estudios Politicos, 1947)

Bayle, Constantino, Que Pasa en Espagna? (Delegacion del Estado para Prensa y Propaganda, 1937)

Bolloten, Burnett, The Spanish Civil War (U. of N. Carolina, 1991)

Braie, Pierre, and Temime, Emile, The Revolution and the Civil War in Spain  MIT Press, 1970)

Brenan, Gerald, The Spanish Labyrinth (Cambridge U., 1950)

Broue, Pierre, La Revolution et La Guerre d’Espagna (Les Editions de Minuit, 1961)

Bustamante, Crisostomo de, Martires Capuchinos de Castilla (Moret, 1962)

Carreras, Luis, The Glory of Martyred Spain (Burns, Oates & Washbourne, Ltd., 1939)

Carroll, Warren Hasty, The Last Crusade (Christendom, 1996)

Cattell, David Tredwell, Communism and the Spanish Civil War (U. of  California, 1955)

Christian, William Jr., Visionaries (U. of California, 1996)

Claudel, Paul, A Los Martires Espanoles (Ediciones de la Falange, 1937)

Costa Deu, G., Centro Martiri della Rivoluzione del 1936 (Societa. Editrice Internazionale, 1937)

Crosby, Donald F., "Boston Catholics and the Spanish Civil War," New England Quarterly, 44 (March 1971), 82-100

Evaristo de la virgen del Carmen, Padre, Martirologio de los Camelitas Descalzos (Catolica Sigirano Diaz, 1942)

Feeney, Thomas J., The Church in Spain (Catholic Truth Society, 1937)

Friends of Spain, Christ or Franco? (Friends of Spain, 1937)

Garralda Garcia, Angel, Los Martires de Nembra (Graf. de la Impr. La Versal de Gijon, 1995)

Gironella, Jose Maria, One Million Dead (Doubleday, 1963)

- The Cypresses Believe in God (Knopf, 1955)

Goma y Tomas, Isidro, The Martyrdom of Spain (J. Duffy for the Irish Christian Front, 1936)

Guttmann, Allen, The Wound in the Heart (Free Press, 1962)

Hayes, Carlton J. H., Wartime Mission in Spain, 1942-1945 (DeCapo, 1946)

Hemingway, Ernest, For Whom the Bell Tolls (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1940)

Herrera Oria, Enrique, Los Cautivos de Vizcaya (Aldus, S. A., 1938)

Hiriartia, J. de, Le Cas des Catholique Basques (H. G. Peyre, 1938)

Iramuno, Xavier d', Perseguido, Difamado, Abandonado, El Clero Vasco Defendiendo La Justicia y La Fraternidad (Societe d'Edition et d'Impr.du Sud-Ouest, 1946)

Joaquin, Ancieto, Nos Martyrs (Sacre Coeur de Jesus, 1956)

Lopez, Martina, And They Gave Their Lives . . . (Lesher Printers, 1997)

Martinez, Francisco, Dos Jesuitas Martires en Asturias (Aldecoa, 1936)

Martinez Padron, Gabriel, El Dr. Tarres (Ediciones Palabra, 1993)

Matthews,, Herbert L., Half of Spain Died (Scribner, 1973)

McGovern, John, Why Bishops Back Franco (Independent Labor Party, 1936)

Montanelli, Indro, La Guerra di Spagna et il Patto di Monaco (Rizzoli, 1984)

Montavon, William F. (trans.), The Catholic Church in Spain (National Catholic Welfare Conference, 1937)

Montero Moreno, Antonio, Historia de la Persecucion Religiosa en Espagna 1936-1939 (Bibl. De Autorers Cristianos, 1956)

Nonell Bru, Salvador, La Persecucion Anticristiana y los Martires de Cristo en Espana (Roca Viva, 1981)

Obispos Espanoles, The War in Spain (Paulist Press, 1937)

O'Connell, James R., The Spanish Parliament and the Clerical Question, 868-1936 (University Microfilms, 1978)

Orti, Vicente Carcel, Spanish Martyrs of the 20th Century (Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 2001)

Payne, Robert, The Civil War in Spain (Putnani, 1962)

Peerman, Dean, "Perturbing Beatifications," Christian Century, 109: 37 (Dec. 16, 1992), 1156-1157

Perez de Urbel, Justo, Catholic Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939 (Angelus, 1993)

Perez Oliver, Alfredo M., Diario de un Testigo (Edelvives, 1982)

Pius XI, Pope, The Pope and the Spanish Terror (s. n., 1936)

Radosh, Ronald, Mary R. Habeck and Grigory Sevostianov, Spain Betrayed (Yale University Press, 2001)

Raguer, Hilari, The Catholic Church and the Spanish Civil War (Routledge, 2006)

Reeves, John B., Dominican Martyrs in Red Spain (Blackfriars, 1938)

Robles, Gil, Spain in Chains (American Press, 1937)

Rodriguez, Victoriano, Martires Franciscanos de la Serafica Provincia de San  Gregorio Magno de Filipinas (E. Martin, 1936)

Sacerdotes Espansoles, La Carta Collectiva de los Obispos Espanoles (Imp. Centrale, 1937)

Salm, Luke, The Martyrs of Turon and Terragona (Romeoville, Ill., 1990)

Sanchez, Jose M., The Second Spanish Republic and the Holy See, 1931-1936 (Catholic University, 1963)

Reform and Reaction (U. of N. Carolina, 1964)

-   The Spanish Civil War as a Religious Tragedy (Notre Dame, 1987)

Segura, Francisco, La Iglesid y El Alzaminento Nacional (Sal Terrae, 1964)

Sender, Ramon J., La Republica y la Question Religiosa ("Cosmos," 1932)

Spanish Bishops, Joint Letter ... Concerning the War in Spain (Catholic Truth Society, 1938)

Spanish Embassy, Spain (Press Dept., 1937)

Stradlng, Robert A., The Irish and the Spanish Civil War, 1936-39 (Manchester University Press, 1999)

Tarin-Iglesias, Jose, Los Martires de Montserrat (Hormiga de Oro, 1950)

Tarres i Claret, Pere, El Meu Diari de Guerra (l'Abadia de Montserrat, 1987)

Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War (Eyre & Spottiswoods, 1961)

Tort, James, The Claretian Martyrs of Barbastro (2nd ed.; Claretian  Missionary Fathers, 1939)

Traina, Richard P., American Diplomacy and the Spanish Civil War  (Bloomington, 1968)

Trepat y Trepat, Jose, Los Mrtires Frxanciscanos de Catalauna Durante la Revolucion Marxista (Tip. Catolica Casale, 1944)

Tylenda, Joseph N., Jesuit Saints and Martyrs (Loyola U., 1984)

Valaik, J. David, American Catholics and the Spanish Civil War (University  Microfilms, 1964)

Vincent, Mary, Catholicism in the Second Spanish Republic (Clarendon, 1996)

Xavier, Adro, Jesuitas Martires (Esin, 1997)

Zumeta, Angel de, Un Cardenal Espanol y los Catolicos Vascos (Publicaciones  Minereva, 1937)
 

                                                                             ***

MARTYRS

There were at least 6,861 Catholic Martyrs in the Spanish Civil War:
12 Bishops; 300 Nuns; 2,365 Monks; & 4,184 Priests
(see Hugh Thomas' book on the Spanish Civil War, p. 144)
(At least 225 were beatified by the end of 1998).
More Martyrs to be Beatified in Jubilee 2000
Pope Beatified 233 Martyrs of Civil War March 11, 2001:
Feast Day of Blesseds on September 22nd
All in the Diocese of Valencia
Jesuits

Priests:


Blessed Narcisco Baste Baste (1866-1936)
Blessed Pablo Bori Puig (1864-1936)
Blessed Constantine Carbonell Sempere (1866-1936)
Blessed Juan Bautista Ferreres Boluda (1861-1936)
Blessed Tomas Sitjar Fortia (1866-1936)
Blessed Alfredo Simon Colomina (1877-1936)
Blessed Dario Hernandez Morato (1880-1936)

Brothers


Blessed Pedro Gelabert Amer (1887-1936)
Blessed Ramon Grimaltos Monllor (1861-1936)
Blessed Vicente Sales Genoves (1891-1936)
Blessed Jose Tarrats Comaposada (1895-1936)

***

Brothers of the Christian School:
Saint Cirilo Bertran (1888-1934)
Saint Marciano Jose (1900-1934)
Saint Victoriano Pio (1905-1934)
Saint Julian Alfredo (1902-1934)
Saint Benjamin Julian (1908-1934)
Saint Augusto Andres (1910-1934)
Saint Benito de Jesus (1910-1934)
Saint Aniceto Adolfo (1912-1934)
More Brothers of the Christian Schools:
Blessed Bishop Diego Ventaja and Companions
Blessed Manuel Barbal Cosan (1898-1836)
The Augustinian Recollect Martyrs of Motril
Blessed Jose Ricardo Dietz
Blessed Leon Inchausti
Blessed Julian Moreno
Blessed Deogracias Palacios
Blessed Vincente Pinilla
Blessed Jose Rada
Blessed Vincente Soler
Daughters of Mary
Maria Francesca Ricart Olmos (1881-1936)

Servants of Mary

Maria Baldillou and Five Companions

Visitation Sisters
Blessed Josefa Maria Barrera Izaguirre (1881-1936)
Blessed Teresa Maria Cavestany y Anduaga (1888-1936)
Blessed Maria Cecilla Cendoya Araquistain (1910-1936)
Blessed Maria Gabriela de Hilnojosa Naveros (1872-1936)
Blessed Maria Engracia Lecuona Aramburu (1898-1936)
Blessed Maria Angela Olaizola Garagarza (1893-1936)
Blessed Maria Ines Zudaire Galdeano (1900-1936)

Other Martyrs
Blessed Francisca Aldea
Blessed Rita Dolores Pujalte
Blessed Maria Sagrarion
Blessed Manuel Martin Sierra

Adorers of the Blessed Sacrament and of Charity

Manuela of the Heart of Jesus (Manuela Arriola Uranga)
and 22 Companions killed in 1936

Augustinians

Avelino Rodriguez Alonso
and 97 Companions killed in 1936
Blessed Hector Valdivielso Saez (1910-1934)
Blessed Jose Tapies (1869-1936)  and Six Companions

Carmelite Martyrs:
Blessed Maria Mercedes Pray y Prat (1880-1936)

Cistercian Martyrs
The Fifty-One Claretian Martyrs of Barbastro
The Fifteen Claretian Martyrs of Cervera
Dominican (Second & Third Order) Martyrs:
Antero Mateo Garcia (1875-1936) & Eleven Companions

Franciscan Martyrs:
Victor Chumillas Fernandez (1902-1936) & Twenty-One Companions
Felix Echevarria Gorostiaga & Six Companions
Antonio Faundez Lopez & One Companion
Pascual Fortunato Almela & Four Companions

Three Marist Brothers of Ciudad Real Executed in 1936

Oblate Missionaries of Mary Immaculate

Passionist Fathers
St. Inocencio de la Inmaculada [Manuel Arnau] (1887-1934)
Twenty-six Passionists di Daimiel Executed in 1936

Salesian Victims:
Jose Calasanz
Sergio Cid

Seventy-one St. John of God Hospital Brothers

Seventeen Sisters of Christian Doctrine Executed in 1936

Sisters Guardians of the Eucharistic Cult:


Blessed Maria de los Angeles Ginard Marti (1894-1936)

Teresians:
St. Pedro Poveda Castroverde
Victoria Diez
Bustos de Molina

The 117 Martyrs of Almeria (1936-1939)

The Martyrs of Turon
Dolores & Consuelo Aguiar-Mella Diaz
Nineteen Martyrs of Viaceli Spain

Blessed Vicente Vilar David (1889-1937)
Blessed Dioniso Pamplona (1838-1936) & Twelve Companions
Blessed Pedro Ruiz de los Panos & Eight Companions (+ 1936)
***
Ceferino Giminez Malla (1861-1936)

Jesuits:

Beatification Cause in Process
Jose Maria Algere Jimenez (1865-1936)
 Ignatius Arámburu (1852-1935)
Bartholomeo Arbona Estades (1862-1936)
Juan Baustista  Arconada Perez (1890-1934)
 Ramon Artigues Servient (1902-1936)
Francisco Audi Cid (1872-1936)
Jesus Ballesta Tejero (1903-1936)
 Luis Boguñá Porta (1893-1936)++
Andres Carrio Bertran (1876-1936)
Manuel de la Cerda y las Barcenas (1900-1936)
Olegario Corral Garcia (1871-1936)
Felix Cots Oliveres (1895-1936)
Emmanuel Darder Palabi (1862-1936)
Jose Ignacio Elduayen Larranaga (1884-1936)
 Thoas Estebán (1879-1934)
Juan Gomez Hellin (1899-1936)
Manuel Gonzalez Hernandez  (1889-1936)
 Ferdinand de Huidobro (1903-1937)
Domingo  Ibarlucca Iregui (1906-1936)
Felipe Iriondo Amundarain (1869-1936)
 Lorenzo Isla Sanz (1865-1936)
Jose Llatje Llatje (1893-1936)
Manuel Luque Fontanilla (1856-1936)
Constantino March Battles (1877-1937)
 Braulio Martinez Simeon  (1852-1936)
Emilio Martinez (1893-1934)
Marcial  Mayorga Paredes (1902-1936)
Miguel Mendoza Reig (1889-1936)
Jose Munoz Abioil (1904-1936)
Jaime Noguera Baro (1901-1937)
Alfonso Payan Perez (1877-1936)
 Manuel Peypoch Sala (1870-1936)
Jose Roma Carreres (1911-1936)
Juan Rovira Orlandis (1877-1936)
Pascual Ruiz Ramirez (1901-1936)
Jose Sampol Escalas (1899-1936)
Jose Sanchez Oliva (1891-1936)
Antonio Sanchiz Martinez (1891-1936)
Martin Santaella Gutierrez  (1873-1936)
Richard Tena (1877-1936)
Francisco Javier Tena Colom (1880-1936)
Ricardo Tena Montero De Espinosa (1877-1936)
 Joaqim Maria Valenti De Marti (1884-1936)
Ignacio de Velasco Nieto (1890-1936)
Jose Vergés De Trias (1898-1936)
Demetrio Zurbitu Recaldo (1886-1936)

Jesuits:


Beatification Cause Not Yet Opened

Catarino Abril Marin (1881-1936)
Ismael Accensi Cid (1894-1936)
Diego Aguilera (1912-1938)
Juan Bautista Andrada Salvador (1898-1936)
Jose del Arco (1889-1936)
Jose Manuel Arin Dorronsoro (1887-1936)
Angel Arminana Silvestre (1902-1936)
Leopoldo Barbo Caballero (1870-1936)
Juan P. Beamonte Garcia (1895-1936)
Manuel Berdun (1879-1937)
Paulino Bertran Sempere (1874-1936)
Tomas Boix Alminana (1866-1936)
Baldomero Bonilla Fernandez (1865-1936)
Ignacio Casanovas Camprubi (1865-1936)
Ramon Codina Alier (1869-1936)
Jose Conti Sala (1865-1936)
Manuel Darder Palahi (1862-1936)
Augustin Diaz y Zapata (1969-1936)
Jose Fabregal Verdu (1893-1936)
Augustin Fernandez Hernandez (1904-1936)
Manuel Fernandez Diaz-Masa (1904-1936)
Jose F. Ferragut Sbet (1889-1936)
Vicente Fonfria Geri (1891-1936)
Tomas Frasno Penarrocha (1866-1936)
Narcisco Fuentes Ruiz-Delgado (1875-1936)
Jose Gabarron Perez (1868-1936)
Jose Garcia Molina (1911-1936)
Zacarias Garcia Villada (1879-1936)
Nemesio Gonzalez Alonso (1866-1936)
Luis Gordillo Diaz (1898-1936)
Vicente Guimera Roca (1869-1936)
Joaquin Hernandez Lopez (1881-1936)
Antonio Jimenez Blazquez (1885-1936)
Jose Juan Martinez (1885-1936)
Martin Juste Garcia (1863-1936)
Florentinio Laria Sampedro (1866-1936)
Manuel de Larragan Alfaro (1884-1936)
Manuel Manes Bosch (1887-1936)
Juan Martinez Garcia (1902-1936)
Jesus Martinez Hernandez (1903-1936)
Valentino Mayordomo Gonzalez (18787-1937)
Jose Mendizabal Tolosa (1881-1937)
Angel Mercader Valero (1889-1936)
Pedro Miro De Mesa (1901-1936)
Ramon Molina (1904-1938)
Carlos Moncho Montaner (1868-1936)
Jesus Montero Carrion (1887-1936)
Inocencio Munoz Aguilera (1895-1936)
Joaquin Noguera Martinez (1873-1936)
Jose Oortiz Calvo (1911-1936)
Jose Palacio Molina (1865-1936)
Felix Palacios (1877-1936)
Miguel Pardo De Donlebun (1881-1936)
Luis Perera Canogio (1865-1936)
Jose Pedromingo Cotayna (1904-1936)
Jose Rallo Pascual (1863-1936)
Jose Rodriguez De La Torre (1877-1936)
Gregorio Ruiz Rodriguez (1911-1936)
Jose Ruiz Goyo (1897-1936)
Jose Ruiz Pimentel (1887-1936)
Nicolas Serrano Fernandez (1910-1936)
Jose Serres Borras (1890-1936)
Jose Simon Cascales (1873-1936)
Pedro Trulls Claramunt (1867-1936)
Jose Maria Valiente Trigueros (1894-1936)
Ramon Vendrell Vives (1865-1936)
Ignacio Vila March (1858-1936)
Jose Maria Vives Castellet (1882-1936)
Frarncisco Vives Masses (1898-1936)
Jose Antonio Yanez Gonzalez (1870-1936)
***

Others


Bishops

Bishop Pedro Cruz Ocana of Cuenca
Oratorian Bishop Salvio Huix of Lerida
Bishop Eustaquio Nieto Martin of Siguenza

Priests

Augustinian Felip Ciscar Puig
Antonio Diaz Del Moral of Madrid
Dominican Pedro Gafo
Dominican Pedro Gerard
Liberio Gonzalez Nonvela of Torrijos
Manuel Gonzalez-Semay Roderiguez of Seville
Franciscan Andres Invars
Pascual Martin of Toledo
Andres Molina of Granada
Jose Sala of Toledo
Francisco Sendra Ivars of Valencia

Brothers

Claretian Brother Fernando Saperas

Layman

Blessed Luis Campos Gorriz (1905-1936)
Francisco de Paula Castello y Aleu (1914-1936)

Women

Seven Martyred Poor Clares at St. Paul's Shine in Cleveland, Ohio
Francisca Aldea Araujo
Church Organist in Barcelona
Jaime Busquets Xaubet
A Doctor from the Republican Army:
Venerable Pere Tarres i Claret (1905-1950)

498 Beatified on October 28, 2007:
Blessed Blanco Marquez (1914-1936)

***

On December 18, 2006, Pope Benedict XVI authorized the beatification of seventy-four Servants of God by recognizing their martyrdom through the publication of the necessary decree. In the case of martyrs, no miracle through their intercession is necessary for their beatification. Seventy-one of
these martyrs soon be beatified were killed during the Spanish Civil War:

[Manuel Gómez González, Spanish, diocesan priest born in 1877, Adilio Daronch,
Brazilian, lay person born in 1908, both killed in Feijao Miudo, Brazil, in 1924; and
Albertina Berkenbrock, Brazilian, lay person born in 1919, killed in 1931].

Eufrasio of the Baby Jesus (born Eufrasio Barredo Fernández), Spanish, born in 1897, priest of the Order of Discalced Carmelites, killed during religious persecution in Spain in 1934.

Lorenzo, Virgilio and forty-four companions of the Institute of Brothers of the Marist Schools,
Spanish, killed during religious persecution in Spain in 1936.

Enrique Izquierdo Palacios and thirteen companions, Spanish, of the Order of Friars Preachers,
killed during religious persecution in Spain in 1936.

Ovidio Beltrán, Hermenegildo Lorenzo, Luciano Pablo, Estanislao Víctor y Lorenzo Santiago, Spanish, members of the Institute of Brothers of the Christian Schools, and José María Cánovas Martínez,
Spanish, parish helper, killed during religious persecution in Spain in 1936.

María del Carmen, Rosa and Magdalena Fradera Ferragutcasas, Spanish, religious of the Congregation of Daughters of the Blessed and Immaculate Heart of Mary, killed during religious
persecution in Spain in 1936.

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IMAGES
***

Film

Land Without Bread (1932)
The Will of the People (1939)
Luftwaffe: The Secret Bomber

***

Documents
Martyrs
Pictures
Weisbord Archives

***


Relics

Martyred Nuns of Madrid

LINKS


Books Available on the Martyrs
Son of Beatified  Martyr  Recalls Father
Living Martyr of the Spanish Civil War
The Catholic Church in the Spanish Revolution and Civil War
Spanish Civil War Resources on the World Wide Web
 Brandeis University Spanish Civil War Collection
The Spanish Revolution and Civil War
Basque Autonomous Struggle & the Spanish Civil War
German Guilt in Gernika Massacre
110 Blessed of the French Revolution & Spanish Civil War
America Magazine Archives
La Guerra Civil Espanola, 1936-1939
A Spanish Site on the Spanish Civil War
Other Films and Videos on the Spanish Civil War
***

RULERS
Niceto Alcala Zamora (1931-1936)
Manuel Azana y Diaz (1936-1939)
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (1939-1975)
 
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Copyright 1999-2006
  - E-mail comments and questions to:

Vincent A. Lapomarda
(vlapomar@holycross.edu).